Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 3rd. ed. (WISC-III) 1991
The WISC-III is an individual test that does not require reading or
writing. Verbal subtests are oral questions without time limits except for
Arithmetic. Performance subtests are nonverbal problems, all of which are timed
and some of which allow bonus points for extra fast work. One criticism of the
WISC-III is that older students must earn speed bonuses to obtain
better-than-average scores. Subtest scores, IQ scores, and factor index scores
are based on the scores of the 2,200 children originally tested in a very
carefully designed, nationwide sample, but still must be interpreted very
cautiously for any individual, especially one who may have somewhat unusual
patterns of strengths and weaknesses. As with any test, influences such
as anxiety, motivation, fatigue, rapport, and experience may invalidate test
scores. Because U. S. children are improving in the skills tapped by
intelligence tests, the 1991 WISC-III usually gives lower scores than did the
1974 WISC-R to the same student.
: oral, "trivia"-style. general information
questions. Scoring is pass/fail.
Similarities: explaining how two different things (e.g., horse and cow)
or concepts (e.g., hope and fear) could be alike. Scoring is 2-1-0, according to
the quality of the responses.
Arithmetic*: oral, verbally framed math applications problems without
paper or, for most problems, any visual aids at all. Scoring is pass/fail.
Vocabulary: giving oral definitions of words. Scoring is 2-1-0,
according to the quality of the responses.
Comprehension: oral questions of social and practical understanding.
Scoring is 2-1-0, based on quality.
Digit Span: repeating dictated series of digits (e.g., 4 1 7 9) forwards
and other series backwards. Series begin with two digits and keep increasing in
length, with two trials at each length.
Verbal IQ is based on Information, Similarities, Arithmetic,
Vocabulary, and Comprehension.
Verbal Comprehension Factor is based on Information, Similarities,
Vocabulary, and Comprehension.
Freedom from Distractibility Factor (a misnomer -- attention,
concentration, and working memory describe it better) includes Arithmetic and
Picture Completion*: identifying missing parts of pictures.
Coding A**: marking rows of shapes with different lines according to a
code as quickly as possible for 2 minutes (under age 8)
Coding B**: transcribing a digit-symbol code as quickly
as possible for two minutes (eight and older).
Picture Arrangement**: sequencing cartoon pictures to make
Block Design**: copying small geometric designs with four or nine larger
Object Assembly**: puzzles of cut-apart silhouette objects
with no outline pieces.
Symbol Search**: deciding if target symbols appear in a row of symbols
and marking YES or NO accordingly.
Mazes*: no pencil lifting, points off for entering blind alleys.
Performance (nonverbal) IQ is based on Picture Completion, Coding,
Picture Arrangement, Block
Design, and Object Assembly.
Perceptual Organization (nonverbal) Factor is based on Picture
Completion, Picture Arrangement, Block Design, and Object Assembly.
Processing Speed Factor, or visual-motor, clerical
speed and accuracy, includes Coding & Symbol Search.
Full Scale IQ is based on the ten tests included in the
Verbal and Performance (nonverbal) IQ scales.
* time limit ** time limit and bonuses for speed