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 Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, 3rd. ed. (WPPSI-III). 

David Wechsler, The Psychological Corporation, 2002.

            The WPPSI-III is an individual test that does not require reading or writing.  Verbal subtests are oral questions without time limits.  Performance subtests are nonverbal (both spatial and fluid reasoning) problems, several of which are timed.  Subtest scores, IQ scores, Processing Speed Quotients, and the General Language Composite scores are based on the scores of the 1700 children, ages 2 years 2 months to 7 years 3 months, originally tested in a very carefully designed, nationwide sample, but still must be interpreted very cautiously for any individual, especially one who may have somewhat unusual patterns of strengths and weaknesses.  As with any test, influences such as anxiety, motivation, fatigue, rapport, and experience may invalidate test scores.

Information: oral, “trivia”-style general information questions.  Scoring is pass/fail.

Vocabulary: giving oral definitions of words.  Scoring is 2-1-0, according to the quality of the responses

Word Reasoning: deducing the meaning of a word from one, two, or three clues. Scoring is pass/fail.

Comprehension: oral questions of social and practical understanding.  Scoring is 2-1-0, based on quality.

Similarities: explaining how two different things (e.g., horse and cow) or concepts (e.g., hope and fear) could be alike.  Scoring is 2-1-0, according to the quality of the responses.

Block Design*: copying small geometric designs with two, three, or four plastic cubes while viewing a constructed model or a picture within a specified time limit. Scoring is 2-1-0 for items 1 through 6 and 2-0 for items 7 to 20.

Matrix Reasoning: completing logical arrangements of designs with missing parts; multiple-choice. Scoring is pass/fail.

Picture Concepts: presented with two or three rows of pictures, choose the one picture from each row based upon a common characteristic. Scoring is pass/fail.

Picture Completion*: identifying missing parts of pictures by either pointing to or naming the missing part. Scoring is pass/fail.

Object Assembly*: assemble, within a specified time limit, puzzles of cut-apart silhouette objects with no outline pieces. Scoring allows for scores from 5 to 0 depending upon the item.

Symbol Search*: deciding if a target symbol appears in a row of 3 symbols and marking YES or ? accordingly.

 Coding *: copying symbols that are paired with simple geometric designs as quickly as possible for 2 minutes

Receptive Vocabulary: point to one of 4 pictures that represents the word spoken by the examiner. Scoring is pass/fail.

Picture Naming: Name pictures shown. Scoring is pass/fail.

Verbal IQ is based on Information, Vocabulary, and Word Reasoning. (Comprehension and Similarities are possible substitutes for the other verbal subtests.)

Performance (fluid) IQ is based on Block Design, Matrix Reasoning, and Picture Concepts. (Picture Completion and Object Assembly are possible substitutes for the other Performance subtests.)

Processing Speed Quotient, or visual-motor, clerical speed and accuracy, includes Coding & Symbol Search.

General Language Composite is based on Receptive Vocabulary and Picture Naming

Full Scale IQ is based on seven tests: 3 Verbal, 3 Performance (fluid), and 1 Processing Speed test.

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* time limit