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TEST DESCRIPTIONS

John O. Willis, Ed.D., Rivier College

Test Description Areas

 

ACHIEVEMENT PERCEPTION, MEMORY AND VISUAL MOTOR SKILLS
BEHAVIOR RATING SCALES PROJECTIVE
COGNITIVE SPEECH AND LANGUAGE

Achievement

Kaufman Survey of Early Academic Language Skills (K-SEALS) Kaufman, A. S. & Kaufman N. L. (1993)

The K-SEALS is an individually administered measure of children's language skills, pre-academic skills and articulation. Both expressive and receptive language skills are assessed. The pre-academic skills evaluated include knowledge of numbers, number concepts, letter and words. The K-SEALS was normed on a national sample of 1,000 children and is intended for children ages 3 years to 6 years, 11 months old.

Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement with Updated Norms (K-TEA NU) Kaufman, A. S. & Kaufman N. L. (1985)

The K-TEA is an individual achievement test presented on an easel with only one or a few items per page. Items are not multiple-choice. It was normed on a nationwide sample of 2,476 students in grades 1 though 12. Scores can be based on the students age or on the student's grade placement.

Peabody Individual Achievement Test-Revised (PIAT-R) Markwardt, F. C. Jr. (1989)

The PIAT-R is an individually administered achievement test for children ages 5 years to 18 years, 11 months old, providing assessment in six content areas: General Knowledge, Reading Recognition, Reading Comprehension, Mathematics, Spelling and Written Expression. It was normed on a nationwide sample of 1,563 students in Kindergarten through Grade 12.

Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT) 1992

The WIAT presents one item at a time without time limits, except for the Written Expression subtest. It offers standard scores, percentile ranks, stanines, and other scores, based either on the students age (four-month intervals through age 12.3, one-year intervals for ages 14 through 19) or the student's grade (fall, winter, and spring norms for each grade), compared to a random, stratified, nationwide sample of 4,252 students of ages 5 through 19 in kindergarten through grade 12. A sample of 1,284 students was given both the WIAT and a Wechsler Intelligence Scale so that students' WIAT Scores could be compared to achievement scores predicted from their intelligence scale scores on the basis of actual test scores from the sample. Achievement scores predicted from intelligence tests fall closer to the mean (Standard score 100, percentile rank 50) than the intelligence scores from which they are predicted.

Wide Range Achievement Test-Third Edition (WRAT-3) Wilkinson, S. S. (1993)

The WRAT-3 is designed to measure reading, spelling, and arithmetic skills in individuals aged 5 to 75, with the possibility of using one of two alternate forms.

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BEHAVIOR RATING SCALES

Attention Deficit Disorders Evaluation Scale (ADDES), McCarny, S. B. (1989)

This school version of the scale, used with children ages four to twenty, was designed to provide a measure of Attention Deficit Disorders: inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. The standardization sample consisted of 4,876 students ages 4 to 20, from 78 public schools systems in 19 states.

Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) Reynolds, C. R. & Kamphaus, R. W. (1992)

The BASC is a multi-method and multi-dimensional approach to evaluating the behavior and self perceptions of children aged 4 to 18 years. The system includes a self-report scale, a rating scale for parents and a rating scale for teachers. It measures numerous aspects of behavior and personality including positive (adaptive) and negative (clinical) dimensions.

Burks Behavior Rating Scales (BBRS), Burks, H. F. (1977)

For use with children grades I through 9, the BBRS are designed to identify patterns of behavior shown by children who have been referred for behavior difficulties at home or in the classroom. It is meant to be a preliminary device for identifying particular problem or patterns of problem a child may be presenting.

Child Behavior Checklist /4-18 (CBLC) and Teacher Rating Form (TRF) Achenbach, T. M. (1991)

The CBCL and TRF are checklists and questionnaires for children ages 2 to 18 years old completed by the student's parent or teacher, describing interests and activities and rating more than 100 potential problems on a 2-1-0 scale. The checklists were normed on a relatively large sample of children with and without known behavioral problems. Percentile Ranks and T scores are based on children without known problem. Competence scales assess reports of school and job perforrr4nce, sports, and social activities.

Conners' Rating Scales, Conners, C. K. (1990)

Brief questionnaires for parents and teachers, focusing on attention, impulsivity, and social problems associated with ADHD. Each item is rated 0 (not at all), 1 (just a little), 2 (pretty much), or 3 (very much). The Comers' Rating Scales are normed for children aged 3 years to 17 years.

Learning Disability Evaluation Scale (LDES), McCarney, S. 8. (1989)

The LDES was designed to be a factor in the determination of the existence of a specific Learning disability. The LDES provides the opportunity to gather performance observations from teachers for students ages 4.5 to 19 years old. The LDES was normed on a total of 1,666 students, from 71 school districts, representing nineteen states.

Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) Sparrow, Balia, & Cicchetti (1984)

The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales are not 'tests,' but questionnaires completed by teachers (Classroom Edition) or by an evaluator working with a parent or other care-taker (Survey and Expanded Interview Forms). They include domains of Communication, Daily Living Skills, and Socialization and, for younger students, Motor Skills, with subdomains within each domain. There is also a Maladaptive Behavior scale for the Interview forms. The Interview forms were normed on a representative, national sample of 3,000 persons from birth through age 18. The Classroom Edition was normed on a fairly representative, national sample of 1,984 students from age 3 through 12. Reliability of the scales depends on individual circumstances. The standard scores and percentile ranks are useful.

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COGNITIVE

Differential Ability Scales (DAS) Elliott, C. (1990)

The DAS is an individual cognitive abilities test, developed and improved from the British Abilities Scales, for students of ages 2 through 17. It includes verbal, nonverbal (fluid reasoning), nonverbal/spatial, achievement, and special diagnostic tests. The DAS was carefully normed on a stratified, random, national sample of 3,475 students. It is designed to be interpreted by both individual subtests and clusters of subtests, not merely by the total score, which is an important consideration for students with unusual patterns of strengths and weaknesses. Different subtests are used at the lower preschool, upper preschool, and school age levels. It is handy to be able to compare the achievement tests to the cognitive ability tests within a single instrument, but unfortunately the achievement subtests measure only oral reading of words, written spelling, and math computation.

For an expanded description press here

Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) Kaufman , A. S. & Kaufman N. L. (1983)

The K-ABC, standardized on a national, stratified sample of 2,000 children, is designed to assess the intelligence and achievement of children ages 2 to 12. The Mental Processing Scales measure the child's ability to solve problems with emphasis on the thinking process used. The Achievement Scale measures acquired knowledge and skills.

Kaufman Brief Intelligence Scale (K-BIT) Kaufman, A. S. & Kaufman N. L. (1990)

The K-BIT, standardized on a national sample of 2,022 people from ages 4 to 90, is designed as a brief individually administered measure of verbal and nonverbal intelligence of people ages 4 through 90. The test takes approximately 15 to 30 minutes to administer and was developed specifically to be used for screening and related purposes.

Test of Nonverbal Intelligence- Second Edition (TONI-2) Brown, L., Sherbenou, R. J., & Johnsen, S. K. (1990)

The TONI-2 is a language-free measure of cognitive ability for individuals ages 5 years old to 85 years, 11 months old that was standardized on a national sample of 2,764 people in the same age range. The TONI-2 offers an administration and response format that eliminates language and reduces motoric and cultural factors. The basis of all of the TONI-2 items is problem solving and the content is abstract/figural.

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) Wechsler, D. (1998)

The WAIS-R is an individual test that does not require reading or writing, and is intended for adolescents and adults aged 16 years through 89 years old. The Verbal tests are oral questions without time limits except for Arithmetic. The Performance tests are nonverbal problem, all of which are timed and some of which allow bonus points for extra fast work. Test scores and IQ scores are based on the scores of the 2,450 adolescents and adults. Scaled Scores are based on the student's own age group. the WAIS-III allows for the computation of four indexes: Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization, Working Memory, and Processing Speed.

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) Wechsler, D. (1991)

The WISC-III is an individual test that does not require reading or writing, and is intended for children aged 6 years to 16 years, 11 months old. Verbal subtests are oral questions without time limits except for Arithmetic. Performance subtests are nonverbal problems, all of which am timed and some of which allow bonus points for extra fast work. Subtest scores, IQ scores, and factor index scores are based on the scores of the 2,200 children originally tested in a very carefully designed, nationwide sample.

For an expanded description press here

Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R) Wechsler, D. (1989)

The WPPSI-R is an individual test that does not require reading or writing, and is intended for children aged 3 years through 7 years, 3 months old. The Verbal subtests are oral questions without time limits except for Arithmetic. The Performance subtests am nonverbal problems, all of which are timed and some of which allow bonus points for extra fast work. Subtest scores, IQ scores and factor index scores are based on the scores of the 1,700 children originally tested in a very carefully designed, nationwide sample.

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PERCEPTION, MEMORY AND VISUAL MOTOR SKILLS

Bender Gestalt Test of Visual Motor Perception

The Bender asks the student to draw pencil copies of nine fairly complex geometric designs. Erasing is allowed. Some examiners ask the student to attempt re-drawing the designs from memory immediately after copying the last one. Koppitiz's scoring system for children up to age 12 emphasizes the overall shape (Gestalt) of the design and, unlike many similar tests, does not penalize minor errors on details.

Jordan Left-Right Reversal Test, Jordan, B. T. (1990)

This test can be administered either individually or to groups to measure visual reversals in children aged 5 through 12. The standardization sample consisted of 3,000 children aged 5 through 12, administered the test in average classroom settings.

Test of Visual-Perceptual Skills (non-motor) (TVPS), Gardener, M. F. (1988)

The purpose of the TVPS is to determine a child's visual-perceptual strengths and weaknesses based on non-motor visual-perceptual testing. The TVPS was standardized on a group of 962 children, ranging in ages from 4 years through 12 years, 11 months.

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PROJECTIVE

Children's Apperception Test

The child is shown a series of pictures and asked to create a story with a beginning, middle and end based on the pictures.

Draw-A-Person

The student is asked to draw a picture of a person. The evaluator often asks the student standardized or individualized questions about the drawing.

House-Tree-Person

The student is asked to draw a picture of a house, of a tree, and of a person. The evaluator often asks the student standardized or individualized questions about the drawings.

Incomplete Sentence Blank

The student completes a series of incomplete sentences. The evaluator often asks the student questions about the responses.

Kinetic Family Drawing

The student is asked to draw a picture a family doing something together. The evaluator often asks the student standardized or individualized questions about the drawing.

Thematic Apperception Test

The individual is shown a series of pictures and asked to create a story with a beginning, middle and end based on the pictures.

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SPEECH AND LANGUAGE

Assessing Semantic Skills through Everyday Themes (ASSET) Barrett, M., Zachnwn, L, & Huisingh, R. (1988)

ASSET is a test of receptive and expressive semantics for children ages 3 years through 9 years, 11 months. The ASSET was standardized on 706 school-age children.

Boehm Test of Basic Concepts-Revised (BTBC-R)

The BTBC-R assesses a child's understanding of basic language concepts.

Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Revised, (CELF-R) Semil, E., Wiig, E. H., A Secord, W (1987)

The CELF-R is intended as a tool for the identification, diagnosis and follow-up evaluation of language skill deficits for children aged 5 years through 16 years, 11 months.

Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test-R (EOWPVT-R) Gardner, M. F. (1990)

The purpose of the EOWPVT-R is to obtain an estimate of a child's verbal intelligence by means of the child's acquired one-word expressive picture vocabulary. The EOWPVT-R is intended for children aged years to 11 years, 11 months and was standardized on 1,118 children.

Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation (GFTA)

The GFTA measures a child's articulation using basic words at all position: initial, radial and final. It assesses articulation both in single word situations and in simple sentences.

Language Processing Test (LPT) Richard, S. & Hanrier, M. A. (1985)

The LPT assesses a child's ability to attach meaning to language and effectively formulate a response for children aged 5 years through 11 years, 11 months. The LPT was standardized on 497 children from Wisconsin and Florida.

Oral and Written Language Scales (OWLS) Carrow-Woolfolk, E. (1996)

The OWLS are an individually administered assessment of receptive and expressive (oral and written) language for children and young adults. The OWLS are intended for children aged 3 years to 21 years, 11 months on the Listening Comprehension and Oral Expression scales and for children 5 years to 21 years, 11 months on the Written Expression scale. Standardization consisted of a national sample of 1,313 children and young adults.

Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R) Dunn, L. M. & Dunn L. M. (1981)

The PPVT-R measures single-word, receptive or listening vocabulary by presenting the student with spoken words and, for each word, showing the student four pictures from which to chose the best match for the word. The test was normed on a large, representative, national sample (4,200 children and 828 adults) and serves its very narrow purpose well.

Receptive One Word Picture Vocabulary Test (ROWPVT) Gardner, M. F. (1985)

The purpose of the ROWPVT is to obtain an estimate of a child's one-word hearing vocabulary based on what he/she has learned from home or formal education. The ROWPVT is intended for children ages 2 years to 11 years, 11 months and was standardized on 1128 children.

Test of Auditory Perceptual Skills-Revised (TAPS-R) Gardener, M. F. (1996)

The primary purpose of the TAPS-R is to assess various areas of a child's auditory-perceptual skills. It is a measure of the child's ability to perceive auditory stimuli and process the stimuli. The test assesses the child's strengths and weaknesses in seven areas of auditory-perceptual skills. The TAPS-R was standardized on a national sample of 1038 children ages 4 years to 12 years, 11 months.

Test of Language Development-Third Edition (TOLD-3) Newwcomer & Hammill (1997)

The TOLD-3 consists of two separate tests: a primary version for children aged 4 years through 8 years, 11 months normed on a national sample of 1000 children; and an intermediate version for children aged 8 years through 12 years, 11 months normed on a national sample of 779 children. Both versions have the same objective: to measure the expressive and receptive competencies in the major components of linguistics. The TOLD-3 can be used to identify children who are significantly below their peers in language proficiency and can determine children's specific strengths and weaknesses in language skills.

Test of Problem Solving (TOPS) Zachnwn, L., Jorgensen, C., Huisingh, R, & Barrett, M. (1984)

The TOPS is an expressive test designed to assess children's thinking and reasoning abilities critical to events of everyday living. The tasks the TOPS assesses include explaining inferences, determining causes, negative why questions, determining solutions, and avoiding problems. The TOPS is intended for students ages 6 years to 11 years, 11 months and was normed on a sample of 456 children.

Test of Written Language-Third Edition (TOWL-3) Hammill and Larsen, 1996

The TOWL-3 includes 'contrived' writing tests and a 'spontaneous' writing sample for which the student writes a 15-minute story about one of two pictures. The TOWL-3 was normed on 2,217 students of ages 7 through 17 tested in 25 states during 1995. The contrived subtests include writing sentences to demonstrate understanding of written vocabulary words, writing from dictation sentences which are scored for spelling and "style" (punctuation and capitalization), rewriting illogical sentences so they make sense, and writing compound and complex sentences to combine simple sentences. The spontaneous subtests are all based on the story that the student writes about a picture. The story is scored for Contextual Conventions (form, punctuation, and spelling), Contextual Language (sentence structure, grammar, vocabulary, and spelling), and Story Construction (prose, action sequencing, and theme).

The Word Test-Revised, Huisingh, R, Barnett, M, Zachman, L., Blogden, C., & Orrmn, J. (1990)

The Word Test - Revised is a diagnostic test of expressive vocabulary and semantics for children ages 7 years to 11 years, 11 months. It is designed to assess a child's ability to recognize and express the critical aspects of his/her lexicon. The word test was standardized on a sample of 805 children.
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