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TEST SCORE DESCRIPTIONS

Below is a few examples of the way in which test scores can be described.  John Willis has kindly supplied a complete  downloadable copy of these test descriptions.  Scroll to the bottom of the page to download a copy.

This file must be viewed in Microsoft Word ™ Page Layout View. That's why they call it "view."

Please feel free to adapt and alter these forms in any way you wish. If I am using stanines in the report, I use the first statistics explanation, delete the second, and keep the "Scores Not Used" explanation at the end. If I am not using stanines, I delete the first statistics explanation, keep the second, and delete the "Scores Not Used" because they were used. There are several additional statistics explanations at the end.

Obviously, I never would use all the tests listed! It is just easier to delete than to paste.

Everything here is, except where noted, my own, twisted opinion, which may well be wrong. Neither inclusion nor omission of any test should be taken as an endorsement or lack thereof. I do use other tests, not listed here, and some tests are included only because I have been forced to use them by a legal agreement regarding re-evaluation.

SCORES USED WITH NAMEXX’S TESTS

[These are not Namexx’s own scores, just the scoring systems for the tests.]

When a new test is developed, it is normed on a sample of hundreds or thousands of people. The sample should be like that for a good opinion poll: female and male, urban and rural, different parts of the country, different income levels, etc. The scores from that norming sample are used as a yardstick for measuring the performance of people who then take the test. This human yardstick allows for the difficulty levels of different tests. The student is being compared to other students on both difficult and easy tasks. You can see from the illustration below that there are more scores in the middle than at the very high and low ends.

Many different scoring systems are used, just as you can measure the same distance as 1 yard, 3 feet, 36 inches, 91.4 centimeters, 0.91 meter, or 1/1760 mile.

PERCENTILE RANKS (PR) simply state the percent of persons in the norming sample who scored the same as or lower than the student. A percentile rank of 63 would be high average – as high as or higher than 63% and lower than the other 37% of the norming sample. It would be in Stanine 6. The middle half of scores falls between percentile ranks of 25 and 75.

Wechsler STANDARD SCORES have an average (mean) of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. A standard score of 105 would also be at the 63rd percentile rank. Similarly, it would be in Stanine 6. The middle half of these standard scores falls between 90 and 110.

Wechsler SCALED SCORES have an average (mean) of 10 and a standard deviation of 3. A scaled score of 11 would also be at the 63rd percentile rank and in Stanine 6. The middle half of these standard scores falls between 8 and 12.

T-SCORES have an average (mean) of 50 and a standard deviation of 10. A T-score of 53 would be at the 62nd percentile rank, Stanine 6. The middle half of T-scores falls between approximately 43 and 57.

STANINES (standard nines) are a nine-point scoring system. Stanines 4, 5, and 6 are approximately the middle half of scores, or average range. Stanines 1, 2, and 3 are approximately the lowest one fourth. Stanines 7, 8, and 9 are approximately the highest one fourth. Throughout this report, for all of the tests, I am using the stanine labels shown below (Very Low, Low, Below Average, Low Average, Average, High Average, Above Average, High, and Very High), even if the particular test may have a different labeling system in its manual.

There are

200 &s, so

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Stanine

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Very

Below

Low

High

Above

Very

Low

Low

Average

Average

Average

Average

Average

High

High

4%

7%

12%

17%

20%

17%

12%

7%

4%

Percentile

1 - 4

4 - 11

11 - 23

23 - 40

40 - 60

60 - 77

77 - 89

89 - 96

96 -99

Standard Score

- 73

74 - 81

82 - 88

89 - 96

97 - 103

104 - 111

112- 118

119 - 126

127 -

Scaled Score

1 - 4

5 6

7

8 9

10

11 12

13

14 15

16 - 19

T-Score

- 32

33 - 37

38 - 42

43 - 47

48 - 52

53 - 57

58 - 62

63 -67

68 -

SCORES USED WITH THE TESTS IN THIS REPORT

[These are not the student’s own scores, just the scoring systems for the tests.]

When a new test is developed, it is normed on a sample of hundreds or thousands of people. The sample should be like that for a good opinion poll: female and male, urban and rural, different parts of the country, different income levels, etc. The scores from that norming sample are used as a yardstick for measuring the performance of people who then take the test. This human yardstick allows for the difficulty levels of different tests. The student is being compared to other students on both difficult and easy tasks. You can see from the illustration below that there are more scores in the middle than at the very high and low ends.

Many different scoring systems are used, just as you can measure the same distance as 1 yard, 3, feet, 36 inches, 91.4 centimeters, 0.91 meter, or 1/1760 mile.

PERCENTILE RANKS (PR) simply state the percent of persons in the norming sample who scored the same as or lower than the student. A percentile rank of 50 would be Average – as high as or higher than 50% and lower than the other 50% of the norming sample. The middle half of scores falls between percentile ranks of 25 and 75.

Wechsler STANDARD SCORES have an average (mean) of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. A standard score of 100 would also be at the 50th percentile rank. The middle half of these standard scores falls between 90 and 110.

Wechsler SCALED SCORES have an average (mean) of 10 and a standard deviation of 3. A scaled score of 10 would also be at the 50th percentile rank. The middle half of these standard scores falls between 8 and 12.

T-SCORES have an average (mean) of 50 and a standard deviation of 10. A T-score of 50 would be at the 50th percentile rank. The middle half of T-scores falls between approximately 43 and 57.

STANINES (standard nines) are a nine-point scoring system. Stanines 4, 5, and 6 are approximately the middle half of scores, or average range. Stanines 1, 2, and 3 are approximately the lowest one fourth. Stanines 7, 8, and 9 are approximately the highest one fourth.

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200 &s.

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Percent in each

2.2%

6.7%

16.1%

50%

16.1%

6.7%

2.2%

Standard Scores

- 69

70 – 79

80 - 89

90 - 109

110 - 119

120 – 129

130 -

Scaled Scores

1 2 3

4 5

6 7

8 9 10 11

12 13

14 15

16 17 18 19

T-Scores

- 29

30 – 36

37 - 42

43 - 56

57 - 62

63 – 69

70 -

Stanines

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Percentile Ranks

- 02

03 – 08

09 - 24

25 - 74

75 - 90

91 - 97

98 -

Classification

Very

Low

Low

Below

Average

Average

Above

Average

High

Very

High

Differences among Namexx's Wechsler Intelligence Scale Total and Factor Scores

 

Performance (nonverbal)

Total

Perceptual Organization Factor

Working Memory Factor

Processing Speed Factor

Verbal

Total

vqx – pqx =

p

f

     

Verbal Comprehension

Factor

 

vcx – pox =

p

f

vcx – wmx =

p

f

vcx – psx =

p

f

Perceptual Organization Factor

   

pox – wmx =

p

f

pox – psx =

p

f

Working Memory Factor

     

wmx – psx =

p

f

Notes:

p is the probability of a difference that large or larger occurring by chance when there is no real difference between the abilities measured by the two scores. A probability of less than 15 in 100 (p < .15) means that such a large difference is unlikely to occur by chance alone, although it may not be uncommon. A probability of more than 15 in 100 is large enough that the difference might have occurred by chance.

f is the frequency of differences that large or larger among the students in the test's norming sample. A frequency of more than 25% (f > 25%) is extremely common. A frequency of less than 25% (f < 25%) is moderately unusual, but not really uncommon. A frequency of less than 10% (f < 10%) is unusual and noteworthy.

These data are taken from on or more of these sources:

Kaufman, A. S. (1994). Intelligent testing with the WISC-III. New York: Wiley Interscience.

Prifitera, A., & Saklofske, D. H. (1998). WISC-III: Clinical use and interpretation: Scientist-practitioner perspectives. San Diego: Academic Press.

Sattler, J. M. (1992). Assessment of children (revised and updated 3rd ed.) San Diego: Jerome M. Sattler.

Sattler, J. M. & Ryan J. J. (1999). Assessment of children (revised and updated 3rd ed.): WAIS-III supplement. San Diego, CA: Jerome M. Sattler.

Wechsler, D. (1991). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (3rd ed.). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation. WISC-III

Wechsler, D. (1997). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (3rd ed.). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation. WAIS-III

To download template press here.

Please send me an email if you download the template. I will be happy to answer any questions you may have. Please do not distribute the template to anyone else.