TEST SCORE DESCRIPTIONS
Below is a few examples of the way in which test scores can be
described. John Willis has kindly supplied a complete downloadable
copy of these test descriptions. Scroll to the bottom of the page to
download a copy.
This file must be viewed in Microsoft Word ™ Page Layout View.
That's why they call it "view."
Please feel free to adapt and alter these forms in any way you wish. If I am
using stanines in the report, I use the first statistics explanation, delete the
second, and keep the "Scores Not Used" explanation at the end. If I am
not using stanines, I delete the first statistics explanation, keep the second,
and delete the "Scores Not Used" because they were used. There
are several additional statistics explanations at the end.
Obviously, I never would use all the tests listed! It is just easier to
delete than to paste.
Everything here is, except where noted, my own, twisted opinion, which may
well be wrong. Neither inclusion nor omission of any test should be taken as an
endorsement or lack thereof. I do use other tests, not listed here, and some
tests are included only because I have been forced to use them by a legal
agreement regarding reevaluation.
SCORES USED WITH NAMEXX’S TESTS
[These are not Namexx’s own scores, just the scoring systems
for the tests.]
When a new test is developed, it is normed on a sample of
hundreds or thousands of people. The sample should be like that for a good
opinion poll: female and male, urban and rural, different parts of the country,
different income levels, etc. The scores from that norming sample are used as a
yardstick for measuring the performance of people who then take the test. This
human yardstick allows for the difficulty levels of different tests. The student
is being compared to other students on both difficult and easy tasks. You can
see from the illustration below that there are more scores in the middle than at
the very high and low ends.
Many different scoring systems are used, just as you can measure the same
distance as 1 yard, 3 feet, 36 inches, 91.4 centimeters, 0.91 meter, or 1/1760
mile.
PERCENTILE RANKS (PR) simply state the percent of persons in the norming
sample who scored the same as or lower than the student. A percentile rank of 63
would be high average – as high as or higher than 63% and lower than the other
37% of the norming sample. It would be in Stanine 6. The middle half of scores
falls between percentile ranks of 25 and 75.
Wechsler STANDARD SCORES have an average (mean) of 100 and a standard
deviation of 15. A standard score of 105 would also be at the 63^{rd}
percentile rank. Similarly, it would be in Stanine 6. The middle half of these
standard scores falls between 90 and 110.
Wechsler SCALED SCORES have an average (mean) of 10 and a standard
deviation of 3. A scaled score of 11 would also be at the 63^{rd}
percentile rank and in Stanine 6. The middle half of these standard scores falls
between 8 and 12.
TSCORES have an average (mean) of 50 and a standard deviation
of 10. A Tscore of 53 would be at the 62^{nd} percentile rank, Stanine
6. The middle half of Tscores falls between approximately 43 and 57.
STANINES (standard nines) are a ninepoint scoring system.
Stanines 4, 5, and 6 are approximately the middle half of scores, or average
range. Stanines 1, 2, and 3 are approximately the lowest one fourth. Stanines 7,
8, and 9 are approximately the highest one fourth. Throughout this report, for
all of the tests, I am using the stanine labels shown below (Very Low, Low,
Below Average, Low Average, Average, High Average, Above Average, High, and Very
High), even if the particular test may have a different labeling system in its
manual.

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Stanine 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

Very 

Below 
Low 

High 
Above 

Very 

Low 
Low 
Average 
Average 
Average 
Average 
Average 
High 
High 

4% 
7% 
12% 
17% 
20% 
17% 
12% 
7% 
4% 
Percentile 
1  4 
4  11 
11  23 
23  40 
40  60 
60  77 
77  89 
89  96 
96 99

Standard Score 
 73 
74  81 
82  88 
89  96 
97  103 
104  111 
112 118 
119  126 
127 

Scaled Score 
1  4 
5 6 
7 
8 9 
10 
11 12 
13 
14 15 
16  19

TScore 
 32 
33  37 
38  42 
43  47 
48  52 
53  57 
58  62 
63 67 
68 

SCORES USED WITH THE TESTS IN THIS REPORT
[These are not the student’s own scores, just the scoring
systems for the tests.]
When a new test is developed, it is normed on a sample of
hundreds or thousands of people. The sample should be like that for a good
opinion poll: female and male, urban and rural, different parts of the country,
different income levels, etc. The scores from that norming sample are used as a
yardstick for measuring the performance of people who then take the test. This
human yardstick allows for the difficulty levels of different tests. The student
is being compared to other students on both difficult and easy tasks. You can
see from the illustration below that there are more scores in the middle than at
the very high and low ends.
Many different scoring systems are used, just as you can measure the same
distance as 1 yard, 3, feet, 36 inches, 91.4 centimeters, 0.91 meter, or 1/1760
mile.
PERCENTILE RANKS (PR) simply state the percent of persons in the norming
sample who scored the same as or lower than the student. A percentile rank of 50
would be Average – as high as or higher than 50% and lower than the other 50%
of the norming sample. The middle half of scores falls between percentile ranks
of 25 and 75.
Wechsler STANDARD SCORES have an average (mean) of 100 and a standard
deviation of 15. A standard score of 100 would also be at the 50^{th}
percentile rank. The middle half of these standard scores falls between 90 and
110.
Wechsler SCALED SCORES have an average (mean) of 10 and a standard
deviation of 3. A scaled score of 10 would also be at the 50^{th}
percentile rank. The middle half of these standard scores falls between 8 and
12.
TSCORES have an average (mean) of 50 and a standard deviation
of 10. A Tscore of 50 would be at the 50^{th} percentile rank. The
middle half of Tscores falls between approximately 43 and 57.
STANINES (standard nines) are a ninepoint scoring system.
Stanines 4, 5, and 6 are approximately the middle half of scores, or average
range. Stanines 1, 2, and 3 are approximately the lowest one fourth. Stanines 7,
8, and 9 are approximately the highest one fourth.




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Percent in each 
2.2% 
6.7% 
16.1% 
50% 
16.1% 
6.7% 
2.2% 
Standard Scores 
 69 
70 – 79 
80  89 
90  109 
110  119 
120 – 129 
130  
Scaled Scores 
1 2 3 
4 5 
6 7 
8 9 10 11 
12 13 
14 15 
16 17 18 19 
TScores 
 29 
30 – 36 
37  42 
43  56 
57  62 
63 – 69 
70  
Stanines 
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 
Percentile Ranks 
 02 
03 – 08 
09  24 
25  74 
75  90 
91  97 
98  
Classification

Very
Low 
Low 
Below
Average 
Average 
Above
Average 
High 
Very
High 
Differences among Namexx's
Wechsler Intelligence Scale Total and Factor Scores

Performance (nonverbal)
Total 
Perceptual Organization Factor 
Working Memory Factor 
Processing Speed Factor

Verbal
Total

vqx – pqx =
p
f 



Verbal Comprehension
Factor 

vcx – pox =
p
f 
vcx – wmx =
p
f 
vcx – psx =
p
f 
Perceptual Organization Factor 


pox – wmx =
p
f 
pox – psx =
p
f 
Working Memory Factor 



wmx – psx =
p
f 
Notes:
p is the probability of a difference that large or larger occurring by
chance when there is no real difference between the abilities measured by the
two scores. A probability of less than 15 in 100 (p < .15) means that
such a large difference is unlikely to occur by chance alone, although it may
not be uncommon. A probability of more than 15 in 100 is large enough that the
difference might have occurred by chance.
f is the frequency of differences that large or larger among the
students in the test's norming sample. A frequency of more than 25% (f >
25%) is extremely common. A frequency of less than 25% (f < 25%) is
moderately unusual, but not really uncommon. A frequency of less than 10% (f <
10%) is unusual and noteworthy.
These data are taken from on or more of these sources:
Kaufman, A. S. (1994). Intelligent testing with the WISCIII. New
York: Wiley Interscience.
Prifitera, A., & Saklofske, D. H. (1998). WISCIII: Clinical use and
interpretation: Scientistpractitioner perspectives. San Diego: Academic
Press.
Sattler, J. M. (1992). Assessment of children (revised and updated 3rd
ed.) San Diego: Jerome M. Sattler.
Sattler, J. M. & Ryan J. J. (1999). Assessment of children (revised
and updated 3^{rd} ed.): WAISIII supplement. San Diego, CA: Jerome M.
Sattler.
Wechsler, D. (1991). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (3rd
ed.). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation. WISCIII
Wechsler, D. (1997). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (3rd ed.). San
Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation. WAISIII
To download template press here.
Please send me
an email if you download the template. I will be happy to answer
any questions you may have. Please do not distribute the template to
anyone else.
