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Sequential & Quantitative Reasoning

Normed for ages 5:0 to 17:11 (Usual age range is 6:0 to 17:11; Out of level age range is 5:0 to 5:11).

This subtest assesses nonverbal reasoning; the ability to perceive relationships; to draw conclusions (inductive reasoning); to formulate and test hypotheses; to use analytic reasoning; and long term information retrieval. The lower items require visual perceptual-motor skills, and the higher ones demand arithmetic computation skills.

The Sequential & Quantitative Reasoning subtest contains a total of 39 items. Responses are scored 1 or 0. Four different starting points are available (age 5:0 to 8:11 start at item 1; 9:0 to 10:11 start at item 8; 11:0 to 14:11 start at item 16, and 15:0 to 17:11 start at item 24). Items 1 through 15 are presented in a consumable booklet in which the child responds by drawing the missing figure in the appropriate space. Each of the final 24 items is presented in a stimulus booklet. For these items the child responds orally, typically with a single oral response. The child is shown two pairs of numbers. Each pair is related by the same arithmetic rule (e.g., the second number is three greater than the first or the second number is twice the first number less one). The child must derive the rule from the two pairs and apply the rule to another number to create a third pair following the same rule.

Factor analytic findings

The Sequential & Quantitative Reasoning subtest is considered a good measure of g across all ages (overall r = .76). This subtest contributes substantially to the Nonverbal Reasoning factor (loading = .80). Specificity is ample for all age groups 6:0 to 17:11.

Reliability and correlational highlights

Sequential & Quantitative Reasoning is considered to possess medium overall reliability (r = .85), with reliability coefficients ranging from .78 to .88 across all of the 13 whole-age groups It correlates best with Matrices (r =.54) and least with Recall of Objects - Delayed (r = .14). It has a moderate correlation with the GCA (r = .79).

Gf-Gc classification

In the Broad stratum definition of abilities, Sequential & Quantitative Reasoning is considered to be a strong measure of Fluid Intelligence (Gf). In the Narrow stratum of abilities, it is considered to be a probable measure of both Induction (I) and Quantitative Reasoning (RQ) (McGrew & Flanagan, 1998, p. 126).

Administrative and interpretive considerations

The Sequential & Quantitative Reasoning subtest is described on pages 241 to 246 in the DAS Administration and Scoring Manual and discussed on pages 62 and 63 in the DAS Introductory and Technical Handbook. To aid examiners in the scoring of the subtest, correct responses are found on pages 244 (items 1-15) and 246 (items 16-39). We have found it useful to copy the answer and the mathematical operations used to arrive at that answer onto the record form itself. This allows item analysis of errors. For example, the correct answer to item 16 is 6, found by subtracting 1 from the stimulus item 7. If a child responds with 8 as the answer, the examiner might hypothesize that the child understood the underlying concept but applied the incorrect mathematical process. If this is found to be a recurrent theme, it may suggest things other than typical cognitive abilities. Although Sequential and Quantitative Reasoning is considered (correctly, we believe) by McGrew & Flanagan (1998) a "strong measure" of Fluid Intelligence, and despite Elliott's (1990b, p.62) effort to make the arithmetic demands "very easy for the ages at which they are given," the influence of simple competence in basic arithmetic calculation can in some cases overwhelm the Induction (I) and Quantitative Reasoning (RQ) Fluid Intelligence narrow abilities, listed as "probable" narrow abilities by McGrew & Flanagan (1998). Sequential and Quantitative Reasoning (and therefore the Nonverbal Reasoning cluster) may not be a valid measure of reasoning ability for a student who has difficulty recalling basic arithmetic "number facts" (sums and differences), even if the child otherwise has good Quantitative Reasoning (RQ) abilities. In other cases, a weakness in Quantitative Reasoning (RQ) may offset a strength in Induction (I), resulting in an equivocal score. Sequential and Quantitative Reasoning has a correlation of .57 with the DAS Basic Number Skills achievement test.

Items 1 through 15 are presented in a consumable booklet in which the child responds by drawing the missing figure in the appropriate space. Examiners may wish to have the child draw his or her response on a separate piece of paper, thus saving the consumable booklet for additional administrations.

Word Definitions Similarities Matrices Sequential & Quantitative Reasoning
Recall of Designs Pattern Construction Block Building Verbal Comprehension
Picture Similarities Early Number Concepts Naming Vocabulary Copying
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