Normed for ages 4:0 to 17:11
This subtest assesses short term and immediate term verbal recall with an
added visual component. It taps verbal encoding, rehearsal, and retrieval
strategies. A child views a card containing pictures of 20 common objects for a
specified period of time. After the card is removed from view, the child repeats
back to the examiner, in any order, the items that he or she can remember. There
is a total of three trials to learn the items, with the objects named for the
child on the first trial. A Delayed Recall trial is administered 10 to 15
minutes later in the testing session with no cueing that the recall will be
The Recall of Objects subtest contains a total of 20 items. One point is
awarded for each correctly recalled object. If the child clearly remembers the
object but misnames it (e.g., rat for mouse) the response is scored as correct.
This subtest does not employ any starting or stopping rules since all children
take all three immediate recall trials. The single exception to this is for the
child who correctly remembers all 20 items on both the first and second
immediate recall trials. When this is the case, the third trial is not given,
but the child is given 20 points for the third, un-adminstered trial (for a
total of 60 points).
Factor analytic findings
The Recall of Objects subtest is considered a poor measure of g across all
ages (for ages 4:0 to 5:11 r = .27, for ages 6:0 to 17:11 r = .35). Specificity
is ample for all age groups 4:0 to 17:11.
Reliability and correlational highlights
Recall of Objects is considered to possess low overall reliability (r = .74),
with reliability coefficients ranging from .66 to .83 across all of the age
groups. It has low correlations with all other subtests (mean r =.26) in
the battery with the exception of Recall of Objects-delayed recall (r = .68).
In the Broad stratum definition of abilities, Recall of Objects is considered
to be a logical secondary measure of both Long-term Storage and Retrieval (Glr)
and Visual Processing (Gv). In the Narrow stratum of abilities, it is considered
to be a probable measure of Free Recall Memory (M6) and a possible measure of
Visual Memory (MV). (McGrew & Flanagan, 1998, p. 104).
Administrative and interpretive considerations
The Recall of Objects subtest is described on pages 86 to 88 as well as on
pages 207 to 209 in the DAS Administration and Scoring Manual and
discussed on pages 67 and 68 in the DAS Introductory and Technical Handbook. If
for some reason, one of the three trials is spoiled or unscorable, examiners may
estimate the three-trial score by multiplying the sum of the two trials by 1.5,
and rounding the result up to a whole number.
Note that the exposure times for the three immediate trials is 60, 20, and 20
seconds respectively. On the first trial, while the directions are being given
to the child and the examiner is naming the pictures, the pictures are exposed
to the child. For the second and third trials, the directions are given before
the card is exposed.
The Delayed-recall trial should be administered after at least a 10-, but no
more than 30-minute delay. Care should be taken to administer this subtest in
the sequence presented in the record form. This will assure that the intervening
subtests are not likely to interfere with the content of the Recall of Objects
Do not interpret the delayed-recall score unless there is at least a 14-point
T score difference between the Immediate- and Delayed-Recall scores (this
difference would indicate significance at the p <.10 level).
It may at times be useful to item analyze the objects recalled on each trial
to develop some hypothesis about the strategies that the child is employing to
remember the objects. Does the child remember them in the same order in which
they are presented, or does the child clump them into categories? Does the child
use an inefficient "replacement" strategy in which he or she forgets
the items from one trial in order to remember the new items in another trial?
Examiners can accelerate recording by omitting vowels and using other
abbreviations. Be sure to distinguish clearly between "ball" and
"bowl." Be careful not to give credit for items repeated (perhaps with
different names, e.g., "rat" and "mouse") on a single trial.
However, if the child asks if it is all right to repeat words, briefly and
quietly reassure the child that it does not matter.
The Manual may cause some trouble because it lists, in the tables for
converting ability scores to T scores, the column entries for Recall of Digits
after the columns for Recall of Objects. This is opposite to the order in which
the subtest scores appear on the protocol summary form. Consequently, examiners
must be alert to avoid the mistake of entering the wrong column when starting
with Recall of Digits. Also the Record Form places the Raw Score to Ability
Score conversion table for the Immediate trials next to the box for recording
the child's responses on the Delayed trial. Examiners must be careful not to
enter the conversion table for the Immediate trials with the raw score from the
The Manual and Record form give time limits for the student's responses on
the Immediate (60, 40, and 40 seconds, respectively) and Delayed (60 seconds)
trials. If the child is still recalling additional items at the time limit, you
should allow the child to finish. Mark the number of items recalled within the
time limit, but continue recording additional items. Since the test is a measure
of recall, but not necessarily a test of speeded recall, allowing a child to
continue beyond the time limits affords the examiner additional information
about memory storage and memory retrieval.